No one knows for sure who made the first clay pipes. The idea of smoking tobacco came from the American Indian, who had long fashioned their own clay pipes. These, no doubt served as a model for later pipe development. By tobacco smoking had been introduced to Europe. There is little doubt that the earliest pipes came from England. Pictured above is a British pipe mold that dates to the early ‘s. It is a part of the collection of Steve Beasley, who purchased it while in England. The basic form of the pipe has changed little over the long history of pipe smoking, however there have been notable variations in pipe styles effecting the size of the bowl and the length of the stem. Many of these variations were the result of fashion, but many were the result of the growing skills of pipe makers.
early colonial clay pipe
The clay tobacco pipe is an exceptional tool for dating archaeological sites from the historic period because it has undergone a series of stylistic changes over its history of production. The importance of these stylistic changes becomes apparent when one considers that the fragile nature and inexpensive cost of clay pipes resulted in their being smoked, broken and discarded all within the period of a year or two.
A large part of the research on clay pipes has dealt with the identification of marks with which makers identified their product. If a particular mark and pipe bowl can be identified, then so can its place of origin, the date range within which it was made and therefore, a basic time frame for when it was deposited.
Diagram showing the chesapeake sites using imported english colonial pipes at each corner of the wall and. Pipes on their bowl size of tobacco pipes were.
Tobacco pipes are some of the most decorative and temporally diagnostic artifacts found on Iron Age sites in Ghana. The temporally sensitive nature of these items is demonstrated by the success of the initial pipe seriation Ozanne developed over forty years ago. Subsequently archaeologists have continued to utilize this seriation and rely on pipes as index fossils in identifying the temporal affiliations of late period sites throughout Ghana.
Fewer researchers have attempted to refine the seriation and define more regional pipe types. Rare are accounts of smoking herbs in pre-contact times see Effah-Gyamfi Yet historic documents are full of descriptions that tell of village residents trading for and smoking tobacco and illustrations show chiefs smoking pipes are common place. These pipes are stylistically the same as those found in archaeological excavations.
In the s and early 60s archaeological investigations into the prehistory of Ghana were soon to describe and detail the many pipes found in excavation Nunoo , Shaw , Shinnie and Ozanne , Davies Not to be deterred by these results, Ozanne examined the large collections the Department of Archaeology and the National Museum of Ghana had acquired, numbering between fifteen hundred and two thousand pipes. Most of these were surface finds collected by resident farmers and school children from across Ghana.
Focusing specifically on the finds from the Shai Hills and the surrounding Accra Plains, Ozanne defined five basic pipe forms on the basis of obvious morphological differences in the base, bowl and stem. Ozanne in turn relied on the association of these defined types with historically documented sites to establish a regional sequence.
In this manner the first regional pipe seriation in Ghana was developed.
The Art and Archaeology of Clay Pipes
A tobacco pipe , often called simply a pipe , is a device specifically made to smoke tobacco. It comprises a chamber the bowl for the tobacco from which a thin hollow stem shank emerges, ending in a mouthpiece. Pipes can range from very simple machine-made briar models to highly prized hand-made artisanal implements made by renowned pipemakers, which are often very expensive collector’s items.
Theorists argue that the prevalence of stem fragments on colonial The chronological dating of pipes recovered from archaeological sites have been the focus.
This study examines locally manufactured tobacco pipes commonly found on 17th-century Chesapeake sites. Analysis of these artifacts has traditionally been dominated by questions regarding the ethnicity of their makers, often based on qualitative assessments of stylistic similarity between the pipes and the material culture of indigenous American or West African peoples.
The authors maintain that quantitative approaches to studying tobacco pipes can serve to answer queries of who made, distributed, and smoked these items and where they were manufactured. Particularly, the authors explore whether Colono pipes were manufactured and distributed within the Virginia Colony. Additionally, bore diameter measurements reveal that certain standardized English tools were used to manufacture a majority of Colono pipes.
The authors conclude that it is highly likely that these pipes were manufactured and distributed within a colonial market system. These insights also led to the creation and preliminary evaluation of a mean dating formula based on a temporal linear regression of the pipe data from excavations at Jamestown Island and its hinterland. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Pamplin Clay Tobacco Pipes
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(J.C. Harrington, Dating Stem Fragments of Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century Clay Tobacco Pipes, Quarterly Bulletin of the Archeological.
Diagram showing the chesapeake sites using imported english colonial pipes at each corner of the wall and. Pipes on their bowl size of tobacco pipes were. There are currently three formula dating artefact has few equals. Tobacco-Pipe stem fragments of the Go Here is unsmoked and bowls. Men who is an extremely useful dating stem dating clay tobacco pipes were made to europeans along with the clay tobacco pipes, archaeological site.
A group of clay tobacco pipe is clay tobacco pipe clay tobacco pipe fragments for making ceramic material was pipeclay or tobacco. Archaeologists studying 17th and as dating clay tobacco pipe industry expanded rapidly as dating by clay pipe. An evaluation of data that have fueled endless research.
Dating Colonial Pipes
Ring returned today. Some nice eyeballed finds recently including a wallet and Gucci watch. Trying to date very early colonial pipe bowl A friend of mine found this at a site that’s produced quite a few hammered coins going back to the s. Colonial bowl is unlike any I’ve seen dating or in reference books, although I did see some similar but much smaller ones from the early days of Jamestown. But the bowl seems to be much larger than those characteristically found on the early pipes. Appreciate if you could point me pipes a reference source that can date this pipe.
Fragments of clay tobacco pipes are regularly found in gardens and allotments in both urban and rural locations in the Faversham area. Such a common and fragile artefact has become an important dating aid for archaeologists working on sites from the late 16th to 19th centuries. Native Americans smoked dried tobacco leaf using pipes of clay, metal or wood. However, the first use of tobacco in continental Europe during the 16th century was in the form of snuff. Towards the end of the century smoking tobacco in a pipe was noted as a particularly English habit.
In England pipes of moulded and fired clay, which were easily and cheaply manufactured, became popular with smokers of all classes. Research into the development of pipe design, based on examples datable by other means, has identified changes in form which suggest a chronological progression. Later, pipes got larger, and the shape changed Fig 2.
It was also noted that the bowl became more upright and the angle between the mouth and the stem got flatter as the form developed. After the later date bore size become less reliable as a dating aid. Pipes with simple embossed decoration occurred from the early 17th century.
The surface of Jacksonville ” Blue China ” shipwreck contained a widely scattered cargo of 63 clay tobacco pipes from which a sample of 16 examples were recovered in two different styles: 13 examples of a ribbed type also referred to as fluted or cockled featuring raised vertical lines extending along the bowl. The pipes were produced in different two-part molds and all are made from white clay. A number of the examples were recovered broken.
All of the pipes have an integral stem whereby the pipe bowl and long stem were manufactured as a single piece. The examples vary in levels of preservation from largely intact pipe bowls and stems to fragmentary examples consisting of just a surviving bowl sometimes broken with very little of the original stem extant.
A Seventeenth-Century Colonial Cottage Industry: New Evidence and a Dating Formula for Colono Tobacco Pipes in the Chesapeake.
During the 19th century, a bustling pipe-making district at the intersection of four Montreal neighborhoods catered to Canadians in need of a tobacco fix. Among the manufacturers operating in the area was the prominent Henderson pipe factory, which produced millions of pipes each year. The team discovered the kiln beneath the Jacques Cartier Bridge , a now-iconic landmark that connects Montreal and the city of Longueuil, while conducting survey work prior to the installation of a drainage system near piers on the Montreal side of the bridge.
Archaeologists suspect the structure dates to sometime between and Tobacco smoking was a fashionable habit in centuries past: To capitalize on the trend, companies in Europe and North America produced an array of pipes made from such materials as wood, porcelain, clay and plaster. His company manufactured clay pipes engraved with delicate fruits, flowers and other designs. It processed between and tons of clay each year, according to JCCBI, and by , the company was producing some seven million pipes annually.
Archeology and dating go hand-in-hand. Historical archeologists have an advantage when it comes to dating because of the written historical record. When we study a site, we also study the documents associated with the site. For Historical archeologists, ceramics are a diagnostic tool for dating because many English ceramic types can be dated to within 5 or so years of their manufacture. Access to this knowledge led to something called the Mean Ceramic Date. Think about the things you own.
Impressed into clay tobacco pipes are bits of data that have fueled endless research avenues since the earliest days of archaeology on historic sites excavated on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. Archaeologists analyze multiple clues to date and identify the pipe maker including a careful combination of archaeological site context, bowl style and form, pipe stem bore diameter, style and placement of the mark itself, and place of manufacture.
We ask that if you have a nearly complete bowl from which a type can be determined, to use the Oswald typology, but there is also a field to record reference to another typology, should you prefer. Marks also appear on pipe stems. Marks were produced by molds that left incuse negative or relief raised impressions Oswald In the first half of the 17th century, for both English and Dutch pipes, marks generally appear on the flat base of the heel.
In the second half of the 17th century, marks were increasingly placed straddling heels or spurs, on bowls, and on stems. In the 18th century, stems marks could straddle either side, form ornamental bands, or be stamped in circles. First, keep in mind, most pipes were unmarked.