Strefa Historii

We use cookies to improve our service for you. You can find more information in our data protection declaration. However, Selahattin Demirtas will likely remain in jail after being convicted of spreading “terrorist propaganda. A court in Turkey ruled on Monday that top pro-Kurdish politician Selahattin Demirtas should be released from jail on terrorism-related charges. However, he will remain in prison, his lawyers said, because he is also serving a sentence for a separate crime. Demirtas has been in pre-trial detention since November , one of many opposition lawmakers, activists, academics and journalists who were arrested in the wake of a failed coup in July of that year.

Meet Kurdish Singles

A chronology of key events:. Article 64 of the Treaty gives Kurds living in the Mosul vilayet the option of joining a future independent Kurdistan. The Treaty of Sevres is not ratified by the Turkish parliament. A new Iraqi constitution recognises Kurdish “national rights” and Mullah Mustafa Barzani returns from exile. The KDP complains of increasing repression.

The Kurdish language is very challenging to learn. For example, there are more exceptions than rules in conjugation of words. In Indo-European languages.

Knowledge about the early history of Kurdish women is limited by both the dearth of records and the near absence of research. In 16th century , Prince Sharaf ad-Din Bitlisi wrote a book titled Sharafnama , which makes references to the women of the ruling landowning class, and their exclusion from public life and the exercise of state power. It says that the Kurds of the Ottoman Empire, who follow Islamic tradition , took four wives and, if they could afford it, four maids or slave girls.

This regime of polygyny was, however, practiced by a minority, which included primarily the members of the ruling landowning class, the nobility, and the religious establishment. Sharaf ad-Din Bitlisi also mentioned three Kurdish women assuming power in Kurdish principalities after the death of their husbands in order to transfer it to their sons upon their adulthood. In the late 19th century, Lady Halima Khanim of Hakkari was the ruler of Bash Kala until she was forced to surrender to the Ottoman government after the suppression of the Bedir Khan revolt in A young Kurdish woman named Fatma became chief of the Ezdinan tribe in and she was known among her tribe as the queen.

During World War I , Russian forces negotiated safe passage through tribal territory with Lady Maryam of the famous Nehri family, who according to Basile Nikitine, wielded great authority among her followers. Lady Adela , ruler of Halabja, exerted great influence in the affairs of the Jaff tribe in the Shahrazur plain on the Turco-Iranian frontier. The revival of commerce and restoration of law and order in the region of Halabja is attributed to her sound judgement.

Lady Adela , called the “Princess of the Brave” by the British, was a famous and cultured chief of the Jaff tribe , one of the biggest Kurdish tribes , if not the biggest, native to the Zagros area, which is divided between Iran and Iraq. Adela Khanem was of the famous aristocratic Sahibqeran family, who intermarried with the tribal chiefs of Jaff. In , Martin Van Bruinessen argued that Kurdish society was known as a male-dominated society, but with instances of Kurdish women becoming important political leaders.

Asenath Barzani , who is considered the first female rabbi in Jewish history by some scholars, is believed to be the first known influential Kurdish woman in history.

Kurdish women

Join over organisations already creating a better workplace. You can download this cultural profile in an easy-to-read PDF format that can be printed out and accessed at any time. The figure of the total population of each country is drawn from the global estimates listed in the CIA World Factbook , unless otherwise stated.

The Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) will continue to provide updated If they neglect or fail to enforce the above rules members of security forces will face a prison The KRG will ensure that citizens are given accurate and up-to-date.

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Employment & labour law in Iraq

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Kurdish marriages are arranged between the families of the bride and groom. Ideally, a man will marry his father’s brother’s daughter, to whom he has “first rights. This lineage endogamy “keeps the family together” but also weakens the ties between lineages, thus increasing the likelihood of conflict. If marriage to father’s brother’s child is not possible, the next best choice is one of the other cousins.

Marriage negotiations are first carried out between the women of the two families, and then finalized by the men when a marriage settlement is drawn up. It states the size of the bride-wealth and how it will be used. If the groom does not pay the agreed-upon bride-wealth or does not support and clothe her according to the standards of her own family, the bride has grounds for divorce.

The only other way she may obtain divorce is by repayment in full of the bride-wealth, unless otherwise stipulated in the marriage settlement. The man may divorce his wife merely by renouncing her three times. According to the Quran, a man may have up to four wives provided he can support them all and spends equal time with each; however, few men can afford even two wives.

Conflict, Democratization, and the Kurds in the Middle East

Since the s, but particularly from the s onwards, successive Iraqi administrations have forcibly displaced hundreds of thousands of ethnic Kurds, Turkomans a Turkish-speaking Iraqi minority , and Assyrians from northern Iraq, and repopulated the area with Arabs moved from central and southern Iraq. The massive forced displacement of Kurdish families from northern Iraq is not synonymous with Arabization, as armed conflict and the genocidal Anfal campaign of also accounted for large numbers of displaced Kurds.

But even when Kurds were displaced by armed conflict or the Anfal campaign, the Iraqi government often ensured that their displacement became permanent and brought in Arab settlers to take over their homes. For the hundreds of thousands of Kurds displaced from their homes by Arabization, armed conflict, and genocide in Iraq, their continued displacement represents a crime that must be redressed. The first massive wave of forced displacement in northern Iraq followed the unilateral declaration by the Iraqi government of a Kurdistan Autonomous Region covering the northern governorates of Arbil, Sulaimaniyya, and Dohuk.

According to Kurdish traditions, a man has the right to marry his paternal uncle’s daughter. Any arrangement contrary to this rule must be negotiated between the​.

From to , they helped overthrow the regime of Saddam Hussein, battled al-Qaeda , and pushed the Islamic State out of northern Iraq and Syria. In recent weeks, some of these same fierce fighters have been violently clashing with Turkish troops in the Syrian Kurdish enclave of Afrin. Reports of chemical weapons and a high civilian death toll are now emerging from the conflict zone. Hundreds of thousands of people have been displaced. In all of these battles, Kurdish women have fought on the front lines , as they have done since the 19th-century Kurdish commander Kara Fatma led an Ottoman battalion of men and 43 women.

That was unusual for the period—but, then again, Kurdish women have long been exceptions in the mostly conservative Middle East.

The Complex Gender Politics of Kurdistan

Share via:. When viewing Iran, the locus of international attention remains fixed on the quarrelsome condition of U. The domestic political landscape in Iran, specifically the numerous ethnic and sectarian minorities in the country, is also beginning to draw more attention. Through collective displays of peaceful activism to organized campaigns of violence, a number of movements purporting to stand for the interests of ethnic and sectarian minority communities who see themselves as victims of state-directed oppression are increasingly capturing the spotlight.

Australian Government travel advice for Iraq. Do not travel. Travel advice level RED. up-to-date local advice and support throughout this difficult period. Do not travel to Iraq, including the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, due to.

The present study attempts to analysis the spatial transformations in the urban environment scale by utilizing the natural step foresight approach in the context of urban environment indicators. To obtain this goal, the methods applied herein included descriptive-analytical studies, document and questionnaire in the frame of Delphi model and software analyzes. Initial discussions were held with 50 academic elites and executives in Saqqez city as the statistical population, followed by the identification of 78 variables in the frame of 16 general classifications.

The results showed that the obtained fill rate was equal to According to the findings, the integrated urban environmental management index ME4 with scores had uppermost direct impact on other variables. Moreover, the index of development and promotion of urban recycling regulations with 5,, calculated raw values presented the most indirect impact on other variables.

The Factors Behind Rebellion in Iranian Kurdistan

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As elsewhere in war-torn Syria, the collapse of established state institutions in the northern, largely Kurdish areas has left a gaping legal and judicial vacuum in its wake. In the cities of Qamishli and Hasakah in northeastern Syria, official courts are still operating in the enclaves controlled by the Syrian regime. However, while they continue to serve the local community in some ways, for example by producing official documents, there is no police force to carry out arrests on their behalf.

One of the limitations of these courts is the lack of trained prosecutors and judges, as almost no Kurds were accepted for these professions in the Syrian Baath system. There is a large pool of Kurdish defense attorneys available, but these individuals would need extensive training to assume new roles in a professional manner. There is also the urgent issue of which law to apply.

The most serious cases these councils deal with are blood feuds. However, he gives several examples of how the peace councils have brought an end to a vicious cycle of revenge killings. After numerous meetings, the deals commonly include monetary compensation from one family to another. While it is surely a good thing that blood feuds and other disputes are being settled, it could be problematic that the boundaries between party, civil society, and state structures have blurred.

A related issue is that different official bodies appear to be only nominally independent from one another. Instead, the so-called social contract became the ultimate foundation of legal and political decisionmaking. In many ways, the document reads as a typical democratic constitution, but there are some problematic passages.

Kurdish People Fast Facts

Aug 28 8 Elul Torah Portion. Kurds are one of the oldest and largest ethnic groups in the Middle East. For hundreds of years they have called an area encompassing parts of Turkey, Iraq, Syria, Iran and Armenia home. Promised an independent homeland by Western powers in , they have never achieved a state of their own.

In the Kurdish dominated south-east, among women, the rate of dating in was tribal rules that are women” is controversial in conservative quarters of society.

Kurdish marriage arrangements are very complex and defined by tribal traditions. Almost all Kirmanji-, Sorani-, Zaza-, and Gorani-speaking Kurds are historically tribal people, and tribal traditions continue to affect the daily experiences of tribal, as well as nontribal Kurds, who live in both rural and urban areas. The term mal also means a lineage in Kurdish.

A lineage is a group of people who descend from a common ancestor. According to tribal ideology, brothers, father, and sons are joined in a single group, creating a division within the tribe against the father’s brother and his sons. They all unite against far removed patriarchal cousins. Although a tribe is segmented genealogically, all of the units described above are united as patrilineal kin against another tribe at times of conflict, such as blood feuds.

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